Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay on Paleo Diet for Autoimmune Disorders - 706 Words

Paleo Diet for Autoimmune Disorders Our body’s immune system protects us from infections and diseases. When the immune system begin attacking healthy cells and tissues in the body, this can trigger autoimmune diseases. This disorder tend to run in families and women particularly Hispanic-American, Native American, and African-American have the higher risk. Treatment involves attempts in controlling the process of the disease as well as reducing the symptoms. Medications and supplements can be effective, while some chooses to rely in the changes of nutritional intake. Paleo is one of the most controversial nutritional diet today and many have chosen to take on this diet in fighting autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune Disorders This†¦show more content†¦Paleo diet for Autoimmune Disorders Making nutritional changes can help in treating autoimmune disorders. One of the most celebrated diets that has been found effective is the Paleo or primal diet. Paleo diet is based upon eating the same diet consumed by our ancestors during the Paleolithic period. These includes fish, grass-fed meats, eggs, vegetables, roots, and nuts. Eating natural, unprocessed foods is the basic idea in paleo diet. By making a few changes in the paleo diet, a new diet plan emerges and this focuses on treating autoimmune disorders. This diet plan is called Paleo Autoimmune protocol. This plan can be confusing due to numerous information and ideas coming from different people. However, the main idea with this is to follow the dietary restrictions as well as the recommendations strictly. For other people following the paleo diet, they may be able to enjoy eating non-paleo food occasional but for those suffering with autoimmune diseases, the set diet plan should be strictly adhered. Here are a few guidelines on paleo food choices for those with autoimmune diseases: Foods to be eaten Vegetables - artichoke, arugula, asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, cucumber, kale, leek, lettuce, mushroom, spinach, and watercress Root crops - beet, carrot, onion, parsnip, turnip, radish, shallot, and yam Fats - animal fat (grass-fed animals), coconut oil, lard, olive oil, and palm oilShow MoreRelatedThe Paleo Diet : It s Common Enough759 Words   |  4 PagesThe Paleo Diet: It s common enough in our industry, but how much do you really know about it? Let s take some time to explore this subject with a little depth. What is the Paleo Diet? The Paleo diet, based on the diet of our early ancestors, is also called the Caveman and Stone Age diet. The only foods eaten are those hunted (meat, fish, and poultry) or gathered (nuts, berries, seeds, fruits, and vegetables). Sorry, but pasta, cereal, and processed foods are off-limits. This diet focuses onRead MoreWhat is The Paleo Diet? Essay1446 Words   |  6 Pageshave diverted from the diet that our ancestors body have accustom too, we now eat process food that have side effects that take time to show any effect. In our past our ancestors where hunters gathers and had a specific diet, the best example of this is the Paleo Diet. The Paleo Diet as defined by Dr. Loren Cordain the foremost authority on the evolutionary basis of diet, is designed to mimic the optimal diet that our ancestors had, and that our bodies adapted too. This diet has been proven to reduceRead MorePersonal Statement : Personal Health Plan Essay1871 Words   |  8 Pagesand skin autoimmune disease called Dermatomyositis. This diagnosis was complicated by the fact I was pregnant with our sixth child. Once the baby was delivered, and medication was continued, the disease was considered in remission. Fibromyalgia has also been a catch all diagnosis for various chronic symptoms like fatigue and pain, Chronic pain and medical suffering impacts one?s mental health as prolonged exposure inevitably will lead to depression. In addition to the first autoimmune disease, IRead MoreThe Human Species Is The Endless Search For Individu al Perfection1471 Words   |  6 Pagesquest for perfection is fad diets; they are spurred on by the desire for a perfect physical appearance of the individual, and the profit-centered food production companies. Fad diets, such as the Paleo diet, the Atkins diet, Celebrity Cookie diet, and the Master Cleanse, are popular among the American public because they promise bodily perfection if one follows them. However, what the mass media fails to communicate to the public is the negative effects of following a fad diet, to oneself and the generalRead MoreGluten, Dairy, Refined Sugars, And Caffeine2870 Words   |  12 Pagesto result in unfavorable behaviors in children. These behaviors include tantrums, screaming, anger, restlessness, insomnia, and irritability. The primary causes of these negative behaviors reside in the diets of children and through the consumption of these mind-modifying foods. Amendments of diet can improve unwanted behaviors in children. Gluten, dairy, refined su gars, and caffeine contribute to unwanted behavior in children because they alter optimal cognitive processing. Gluten can have an affectRead MoreUnlocking Weight Loss Resistance At Just 30 Days11226 Words   |  45 PagesChapter Name Pg # 10 Chapter Name Pg # DISCLAIMER: (THIS IS THE STUFF THE LAWYERS MAKE ME SAY!) Kurt Stradtman, CFNC is not a physician or psychologist, and the scope of this book does not include treatment or diagnosis of specific illnesses or disorders. If you, the client, suspect you may have an ailment or illness that may require medical attention, then you are encouraged to consult with a licensed physician without delay. Only a licensed physician can prescribe drugs. Any mention of drugs

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Divorce And Its Effects On The Psychosocial Domain

Couples make the decision to have a divorce after realizing that their marriage is no longer healthy, and in order to restore their happiness they decide to end the marriage. Although the individuals mutually agree that this is the best decision long term it can also lead to an accumulation of negative effects. These negative effects will impact every individual that is associated with the divorce, which can include the parents, children, family members, and friends. The occurrence of a divorce can impact the psychosocial, cognitive, and physical domain of each individual associated, cause various long term effects, and lead to remarriage. The psychosocial domain focuses on the feelings, emotions, personality, and relationships of an†¦show more content†¦In regard to their children both parents may personally believe that the divorce is breaking up their family. Depending on the custody decisions that are put in place the time spent with each parent will be impacted. This transformation may cause one parent to be unsatisfied, which can cause more conflict between both parents. However, the text book argues on page 259, that the divorce will not be as negatively impacting to the children if the parents collaborate and both remain involved in the child’s life. This is why joint custody is usually a better option for the children. Overall each parent will be likely to be in mourning and experience disappointment, hurt, outrage. Divorce will also impact the psychosocial domain of children and adolescents. The end of a marriage can cause economic problems, which can lead to their children being forced to move houses, schools, and even stop participating in sports. The abundance of changes can be depressing being that they may no longer have the ability to participate in activities that they once loved along spending time with friends that they were close to. The PowerPoint proclaims that social losses in the lives of the adults and children can be a result of divorce, which can be upsetting to their friends. In Piaget’s Cognitive Domain Theory, the preoperational stage is focused on children between the agesShow MoreRelatedThe Development Of Middle Childhood1147 Words   |  5 Pagesfulfilled because my parents had filed for divorce after being together and married for 20 years. As stated in the ‘Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood’ power point divorce is considered a grieving pr ocess and we all had lost my dad. Not only had we lost our dad, but we lost a second income and support system in the household. So, I wasn’t surprised when it was stated divorced families typically have secondary losses because, after the divorce my mom, two sisters, and I had to move intoRead MorePersonal Impact Paper1497 Words   |  6 Pagesswollen. Her husband has filed a divorce because she could not take care of children , family ,plus financial crisis, and she is scared because she is covered under her husband’s medical insurance. Impact of Cronh’s disease can be extensive on an individual’s social, financial, and personal as seen in MS case. She could not work and only get 60% of her salary , plus medical expense, unable to take care her family, and her two young children so cause her husband filed divorce. Furthermore, she is isolatedRead MoreA Study of John Nash Essay1179 Words   |  5 Pagesthe purposes of this paper, no such conditions were discovered. The fourth axis includes special psychosocial or environmental situations that the person is facing. Nash’s Axis IV diagnosis could be a problem related to the social environment. Nash’s condition placed an incredible amount of strain on his marriage to Alicia de Larde. They were eventually divorced after six years of marriage. The divorce was seven years prior to his final hospital discharge. However, Nash and de Larde remarried overRead MoreAfrican American Daughters And Non Residential Fathers : A Qualitative Exploration9462 Words   |  38 PagesAfrican American Daughters and Non-Residential Fathers: A Qualitative Exploration La Toi S Smith Chapter 1 Introduction I spent the majority of my life being raised by a single mother due to my parents’ divorce. Because of my parents’ divorce, my mother stated firmly that I had changed and became a difficult child. I remember rebelling, suffering with low self-esteem and self-worth and blaming myself for the absence of my father. It was not until I was well into womanhood that I found peaceRead MoreHIV/AIDS acquisition is at an all-time high in today’s society, especially for women in hidden or2000 Words   |  8 Pageskeeping women from seeking services that could help both them and their children (Beard et al. 2010). The following paper explores the ways in which stigma acts as a barrier for women to seek testing and treatment for HIV/AIDS, as well as the psychosocial effects that stigma produces in these women’s and their children’s lives. Although interventions have been introduced in the hopes of reducing stigma, not many have been successful as they fail to a ddress the roots of stigma (Mahajan et al., 2008)Read MoreChanging Picture of the Look of a Family2836 Words   |  11 Pagesorder for them and myself to have a better life. I was the only child with the same parents. My mother and father had gotten a divorce before I was even born. My father ended up having four additional children, one of which life he was never involved in. My mother still had only one child, which is I. However, my mother just as my father re-married. It can be seen that divorce and re-marriage, is a pattern that occurred within my family. Both grandparents on my mother and father’s side separated asRead MoreNormative Development3160 Words   |  13 Pagesexistence. Possibly the two things that are constantly normal in human existence are birth and death. What happens in between is very much a complicated affair. Sigelman amp; Rider (2012) identify three broad domains of development: physical, cognitive and psychosocial. Of these three domains, parameters for physical growth are the most accurate predictor of normative data. All humans have endocrine and neural systems, which are essentially involved in growth, maturation, ageing and functioning overRead MoreLife Events and Psychiatric Disorders6114 Words   |  25 Pagesoccurrence involving a relatively abrupt change that may produce serious and long lasting effects. It refers to the happening itself and not to the transitions that will occur because of the happenings. Life events can occur in a variety of domains (family, health, and work) and may be age graded (School, marriage and retirement), history graded (war and depression), or non-normative (illness and divorce). Most of the adolescent and adult literature reflects a sociological tradition of assessingRead MoreEriksons Psychosocial Development Theory10839 Words   |  44 Pageserik eriksons psychosocial crisis life cycle model - the eight stages of human development Eriksons model of psychosocial development is a very significant, highly regarded and meaningful concept. Life is a serious of lessons and challenges which help us to grow. Eriksons wonderful theory helps to tell us why. The theory is helpful for child development, and adults too. For the lite version, heres a quick diagram and summary. Extra details follow the initial overview. For more informationRead MoreShould Gambling Be Legal?2890 Words   |  12 Pageslegalized gambling and an abundance of people are gravitated to the chances of winning money. Considering that gambling is legal, the growth has led to many people to attempt to gamble. While most people gamble would gamble for fun and have no adverse effects, the amount of addicted gamblers has increased in the casino environment. Population An individual who gambles typically will gamble to receive extra funds to support their cost of living. When gambling first began in Egypt people would play for

Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Free Essays

The movie â€Å"Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind† is the story of a guy, Joel, who discovers that his long-time girlfriend, Clementine, has undergone a psychiatrist’s experimental procedure in which all of her memory of Joel is removed, after the couple has tried for years to get their relationship working right. Frustrated by the idea of still being in love with a woman who doesn’t remember their time together, Joel agrees to do the procedure also, to erase his memories of Clementine. The movie takes place mostly in Joel’s mind, which follow his memories of Clementine backwards in time as each recent memory is replaced, and the process then goes on to the previous one and then erased. We will write a custom essay sample on Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind or any similar topic only for you Order Now Once the process starts, Joel realizes he doesn’t really want to forget Clementine, so he starts sneaking her away into parts of his memory where she don’t belong that changes other things about his memories also. â€Å"Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind† is dealing with the ideas of ownership, truth, time, and presence. For example ownership is represented of having the memory of the one person, truth is shown through spirituality, time is shown by the existence of their memories, and presence is brought out through Joel’s mind of Clementine. The character who is most present in their life is Clementine because she is being present, occurring, and existing in Joel’s mind. The character that is most aware of time is Joel because of the existence and events of Clementine. The central theme of â€Å"Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind† is unavoidable romance, but with a difference. The love itself, when it’s finally won, isn’t appealing. It’s not even likely to last, but being in love is the only way these characters feel alive and no void in their brains can get over that. The statement of â€Å"Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless mind† is time because of the events in the past, present, an future of Joel and Clementine’s memories, but also willingness to skip across the memories of forgetting. How to cite Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Phylum Annelida Essay Example

Phylum Annelida Essay Phylum Annelida L. annelleus = little ring Annelida have bodies consisting of many essentially similar ringlike segments (somites or metameres). This segmentation usually shows in both external and internal features, including muscles, nerves, and circulatory, excretory and reproductive organs. Phylum Annelida This phylum is divided into three classes: Oligochaeta: Earthworms Most earthworms and their equals are inhabitants of damp soil and fresh waters. Hirudinea: Leeches The leeches are found mainly in fresh water or on moist ground. Polychaeta: Bristle-worms The marine worms are found chiefly in close vicinity of the shore. †¢OLIGOCHAETA = Earthworms †¢HIRUDINEA = Leeches †¢POLYCHAETA = Bristle-worms Some annelids are free-living, many inhabit burrows or dwell in tubes, some are commensals on other aquatic animals (few are ecto- or endoparasites), and many of the leeches attach to vertebrates. †¢Symmetry bilateral. Triploblastic. The body is elongate and usually conspicuously segmented both internally and externally. †¢Appendages are minute rodlike chitinous setae, little to many per somite. Polychaeta have fleshy tentacles on its head and has the setae situated on the lateral fleshy parapodia. Most species of the class Hirudinea lack setae. †¢The Body is covered by a thin moist cuticle over columnar epithelium containing unicellular gland cells and sensory cells. Both the body wall and the digestive canal has layers of circular and longitudinal muscles. The body cavity (coelom) is well developed (except in the leeches) and is divided by septa in the Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. †¢A complete digestive canal is present in a tubular shape, extending the whole length of the body. A closed circulatory system of longitudinal blood vessels with branches extending laterally in each segment. Dissolved hemoglobin and free amoebocytes are usually present in the blood plasma. Respiration occurs via the epidermis or through gills in some tube dweller species. †¢Excretory system consists of one pair of nephridia per segment(somite). Each of these nephridia removes waste from the coelom and bloodstream directly to the outside world. A nervous system is present with a pair of cerebral ganglia ( a brain) and connectives to a solid (double) midventral nerve cord extending the length of the body. We will write a custom essay sample on Phylum Annelida specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Phylum Annelida specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Phylum Annelida specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The midventral nerve cord is connected to pairs of lateral nerves in each segment. Sensory cells and organs for touch, taste and the perception of light is also present. †¢The sexes are united and the development in the case of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea are direct or the sexes are separate and the development includes a trocophore larval stage as with the Polychaeta. †¢Some species of Oligochaeta and Polychaeta reproduce asexually by budding. Earthworms have long, cylindrical body that is divided into similar segments. The grooves that extend around the body of the worm show the arrangement of the segments. Earthworms have bilateral symmetry The first body segment is called the peristomium. The peristomium contains the mouth. Instead, they depend on their prostomium and sensory receptors in their skin to feel their way through the soil. The periproct is the last segment of an earthworm. Reference: †¢Hickman Jr. C. P. and et al. , 2007. Animal Diversity 4th edition. Boston: McGrawHill †¢http://www. naturewatch. ca/english/wormwatch/resources/anatomy. html

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Free Essays on Learner Strategy Training

Learner Strategy Training It has its early roots in studies of â€Å"good† and â€Å"bad† language learners. Relevant factors, believed to be contributing to their success, were extracted by using tests of psycolinguistic factors, interviews and other data analysis. Good learners... ... find their own way, taking charge of their learning ...are creative, developing a â€Å"feel† for language ...practice language inside and outside the classroom ...learn to continue talking and listening without understanding every word ...make errors work for them and not against them ...use knowledge of their first language in learning a second language ...learn to make intelligent guesses They ´re aware of general personality and cognitive characteristics or tendencies. Learners can, through a program of self awareness, understand who they are and take steps to change their style. There is a number of informal (not scored) and formal (scored) personality and cognitive style tests. How to teach strategies in the classroom: 1) Teach strategies through interactive techniques - to lower inhibition, you can play guessing and communication games, do group work, laugh with your students - to encourage risk- taking, praise students for trying out language - to build students self confidence, tell them that you believe in them - to promote cooperative learning, play down competition among students 2) Use compensatory techniques Several dozen techniques can be â€Å"prescribed† to help students to overcome problems. - to overcome low tolerance of ambiguity you can do brainstorming, role- play or skimming tasks -to overcome caution ( they want to get everything right before they speak) you can work with small groups, do role-play and work with fluency techniques. 3) Develop awareness of strategies/ styles - use strategy/ style check lists Review of our presentation We tried to demonstrate t... Free Essays on Learner Strategy Training Free Essays on Learner Strategy Training Learner Strategy Training It has its early roots in studies of â€Å"good† and â€Å"bad† language learners. Relevant factors, believed to be contributing to their success, were extracted by using tests of psycolinguistic factors, interviews and other data analysis. Good learners... ... find their own way, taking charge of their learning ...are creative, developing a â€Å"feel† for language ...practice language inside and outside the classroom ...learn to continue talking and listening without understanding every word ...make errors work for them and not against them ...use knowledge of their first language in learning a second language ...learn to make intelligent guesses They ´re aware of general personality and cognitive characteristics or tendencies. Learners can, through a program of self awareness, understand who they are and take steps to change their style. There is a number of informal (not scored) and formal (scored) personality and cognitive style tests. How to teach strategies in the classroom: 1) Teach strategies through interactive techniques - to lower inhibition, you can play guessing and communication games, do group work, laugh with your students - to encourage risk- taking, praise students for trying out language - to build students self confidence, tell them that you believe in them - to promote cooperative learning, play down competition among students 2) Use compensatory techniques Several dozen techniques can be â€Å"prescribed† to help students to overcome problems. - to overcome low tolerance of ambiguity you can do brainstorming, role- play or skimming tasks -to overcome caution ( they want to get everything right before they speak) you can work with small groups, do role-play and work with fluency techniques. 3) Develop awareness of strategies/ styles - use strategy/ style check lists Review of our presentation We tried to demonstrate t...

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Chaco Road System - Southwestern Americas Ancient Roads

The Chaco Road System - Southwestern America's Ancient Roads One of the most fascinating and intriguing aspects of Chaco Canyon is the Chaco Road, a system of roads radiating out from many Anasazi  Great House sites such as Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl and Una Vida, and leading towards small outlier sites and natural features within and beyond the canyon limits. Through satellite images and ground investigations, archaeologists have detected at least eight main roads that together run for more than 180 miles (ca 300 kilometers), and are more than 30 feet (10 meters) wide. These were excavated into a smooth leveled surface in the bedrock or created through the removal of vegetation and soil. The Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) residents of Chaco Canyon cut large ramps and stairways into the cliff rock to connect the roadways on the ridgetops of the canyon to the sites on the valley bottoms. The largest roads, constructed at the same time as many of the Great Houses  (Pueblo II phase between AD 1000 and 1125), are: the Great North Road, the South Road, the Coyote Canyon Road, the Chacra Face Road, Ahshislepah Road, Mexican Springs Road, the West Road and the shorter Pintado-Chaco Road. Simple structures like berms and walls are found sometimes aligned along the courses of the roads. Also, some tracts of the roads lead to natural features such as springs, lakes, mountain tops and pinnacles. The Great North Road The longest and most famous of these roads is the Great North Road. The Great North Road originates from different routes close to Pueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl. These roads converge at Pueblo Alto and from there lead north beyond the Canyon limits. There are no communities along the roads course, apart from small, isolated structures. The Great North Road does not connect Chacoan communities to other major centers outside the canyon. Also, material evidence of trade along the road is scarce. From a purely functional perspective, the road seems to go nowhere. Purposes of the Chaco Road Archaeological interpretations of the Chaco road system are divided between an economic purpose and a symbolic, ideological role linked to ancestral Puebloan beliefs. The system was first discovered at the end of the 19th century, and first excavated and studied in the 1970s. Archaeologists suggested that the roads main purpose was to transport local and exotic goods inside and outside the canyon. Someone also suggested that these large roads were used to quickly move an army from the canyon to the outlier communities, a purpose similar to the road systems known for the Roman empire. This last scenario has long been discarded because of the lack of any evidence of a permanent army. The economic purpose of the Chaco road system is shown by the presence of luxury items at Pueblo Bonito and elsewhere in the canyon. Items such as macaws, turquoise, marine shells, and imported vessels prove the long distance commercial relations Chaco had with other regions. A further suggestion is that the widespread use of timber in Chacoan constructionsa resource not locally availableneeded a large and easy transportation system. Chaco Road Religious Significance Other archaeologists think instead that the main purpose of the road system was a religious one, providing pathways for periodic pilgrimages and facilitating regional gatherings for seasonal ceremonies. Furthermore, considering that some of these roads seem to go nowhere, experts suggest that they can be linkedespecially the Great North Roadto astronomical observations, solstice marking, and agricultural cycles. This religious explanation is supported by modern Pueblo beliefs about a North Road leading to their place of origin and along which the spirits of the dead travel. According to modern pueblo people, this road represents the connection to the shipapu, the place of emergence of the ancestors. During their journey from the shipapu to the world of the living, the spirits stop along the road and eat the food left for them by the living. What Archaeology tells us About the Chaco Road Astronomy certainly played an important role in Chaco culture, as it is visible in the north-south axis alignment of many ceremonial structures. The main buildings at Pueblo Bonito, for example, are arranged according to this direction and probably served as central places for ceremonial journeys across the landscape. Sparse concentrations of ceramic fragments along the North Road have been related to some sort of ritual activities carried out along the roadway. Isolated structures located on the roadsides as well as on top of the canyon cliffs and ridge crests have been interpreted as shrines related to these activities. Finally, features such as long linear grooves were cut into the bedrock along certain roads which dont seem to point to a specific direction. It has been proposed that these were part of pilgrimage paths followed during ritual ceremonies. Archaeologists agree that the purpose of this road system may have changed through time and that the Chaco Road system probably functioned for both economic and ideological reasons. Its significance for archaeology lies in the possibility to understand the rich and sophisticated cultural expression of ancestral Puebloan societies. Sources This article is a part of the About.com guide to the Anasazi (Ancestral Puebloan) Culture, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Cordell, Linda 1997 The Archaeology of the Southwest. Second Edition. Academic Press Soafer Anna, Michael P. Marshall and Rolf M. Sinclair 1989 The great North Road: a cosmographic expression of the Chaco culture of New Mexico. In World Archaeoastronomy, edited by Anthony Aveni, Oxford University Press. pp: 365-376 Vivian, R. Gwinn and Bruce Hilpert 2002 The Chaco Handbook. An Encyclopedic Guide. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Statutory Interpretation Within The Courts Of England & Wales Essay - 1

Statutory Interpretation Within The Courts Of England & Wales - Essay Example In this essay, the primary purpose is to identify the standard powers available to the courts in England and wales in association with statutory interpretation. Moreover, the essay will explore how the canon of judicial precedent employs statutory interpretation. Users of the law such as students, practitioners, academics are in many times faced with difficulty to interpret drafted laws. Factors that lead to the need for the interpretation have already been highlighted and shall be divided into two i.e. due to insufficiency or narrowness and broadness or the legislation being general. To clarify such matters, the court has the power to give guidance and interpret such law by administering justice to the people. Therefore, in this regard, there are three basic rules ‘Canons’ that are at the disposal of the court to determine the targets and the meaning of a statute (Edlin, 2007). Further According to Keenan and Riches in their book Business Law, judges must follow the laid out guidelines that are categorized according to their origin i.e. either statutory rules or common law rules. For example, under the statutory rules interpretation sections are found in the Modern acts (interpretation Act 1978 and internal/intrinsic aids). On the other hand, common law rules guides the judge on how to interpret (Literal rule, Golden rule, and mischief rule) ( Keenan & Riches, 2011). This is the first rule of statutory interpretation where the court is expected to assess the common and basic understanding and meaning of a provision. This rule is aimed at maintaining the original intent of parliament. Hence, in case ambiguity is present the natural and original dictionary meaning is applied. Consequently the literal rule is greatly recognized because it respects parliamentary independence. However, this also means that judges are not at liberty in regards to statutory interpretation. More so, the literal rule does not go without its flaws for example the use of dictionary